The treatment of superficial gastritis: features for different types of the disease
Superficial gastritis is a form of chronic gastritis in which there is loss of cells of the upper layer of the mucosa. This leads to a disruption of the stomach of varying severity.
Causes and pathogenesis
The main cause of disease is Helicobacter pylori. In addition, superficial gastritis may develop with prolonged and regular exposure to precipitating factors:
- unhealthy lifestyle;
- associated chronic diseases;
- pathogenic infection;
- worm infestation;
- long term stress situation;
- food poisoning;
- work in hazardous industries.
The influence of precipitating factors leads to the violation of the production of hydrochloric acid and gastric juice, the motility of the organ. With the passage of time is the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes of the gastric mucosa.
Superficial gastritis refers to the initial stages of chronic disease. Pathology is characterized by pathological changes in the epithelial layer of the gastric mucosa. If treatment is not carried out, the General condition of the patient deteriorated and are involved in pathological process cancer of the stomach. This leads to the development of atrophic gastritis.
The degree of spread of the inflammatory process of chronic superficial gastritis is focal and diffuse.
At the location of pathologic process there are distinguished such types of superficial gastritis:
- superficial antral gastritis;
- gastritis of the stomach;
- gastritis of the gastric fundus;
In origin it can be primary and secondary. Development of secondary superficial inflammation caused by progressive course of comorbidity.
Superficial gastritis is characterized by the frequency of the clinical manifestations following the change of exacerbations and remissions. To exacerbate superficial gastritis cause triggering factors, but effective treatment leads to the development of a fairly long remission.
The main symptoms of superficial gastritis of the stomach:
- bloating, high blood pressure, and burning in the epigastric region;
- dull or aching pain in the region of the stomach after a meal;
- nausea on an empty stomach;
- loss of appetite;
- unpleasant smell and taste in the oral cavity.
At a superficial mucosal inflammatory process, the disease can occur with a decrease or increase of acidity inthe stomach.
Young people neuroticeski gastritis often occurs with increased acidity, which leads to the following symptoms:
- acute pain,
- belching sour,
- at night observed dull pain.
Disease with low acidity of the stomach often becomes atrophic variant and occurs in patients of older age. Gastritis superficial type with low acidity accompanied by:
- weight loss,
- poor appetite,
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
- increasing General weakness,
- a white coating on the tongue,
- belching air in the morning.
If disease of the stomach is left untreated, it can lead to the development of inflammation of the surface of the duodenal mucosa. The main manifestation – aching pain in the epigastrium. The pain is worse when eating spicy and hot, it facilitates the passage of food further into the intestine and the attack of diarrhea.
Superficial gastritis in its development passes through the following stages:
- Stage mild changes inflammatory process has affected a small area of the gastric mucosa. Cells subjected to degeneration, a little.
- Stage moderately pronounced changes characterized by infiltration of inflammation to the middle parts of the glands, the amount of stomach cells undergoing degeneration, increases.
- Stage of severe changes characterized by infiltration of the entire thickness of the gastric mucosa to the muscular plate, and the volume affected by the pathological process of the cells more healthy.
The characteristics of the disease
First, the patient developed superficial gastritis of the antrum, an early stage pathology. If not treated, continue to lead an unhealthy lifestyle and wrong to eat, then the pathological process gradually extends to all the mucous that leads to the appearance of signs of atrophy and pangastritis.
The transition of inflammation from the stomach into the duodenum causes development of the gastro. In some cases, this leads to erosion of the mucosa of the colon or ulcer.
Persistent disease on the background of the lack of treatment can cause colitis, bleeding from ulcers and adhesions in the abdominal cavity.
Neuroticeski chronic gastritis is diagnosed on the basis of:
- complaints of the patient;
- history of the disease;
- the results of the survey.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy necessary to determine the extentlesions of the gastric mucosa and duodenum.
Mucosal biopsy of the stomach allows to determine the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which led to the development of the disease. Also performed a target biopsy gipertrofirovannyy sites for subsequent histological examination. It is necessary to exclude malignancy.
X-rays performed for suspected hernia, peptic ulcer and cancer.
General and biochemical blood tests are needed to evaluate the General condition of the patient. Coprogram is required for the determination of occult blood in the stool, reflecting the presence of bleeding.
Therapy and its features
To treat superficial gastritis can be home, but under the supervision of a physician-gastroenterologist. Referral for hospitalization is given to patients with suspected peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum.
Conservative treatment includes various groups of drugs, the intake of which helps to eliminate the symptoms of superficial gastritis.
Antibacterial treatment of superficial gastritis is the presence of Helicobacter pylori. According to a specific scheme prescribes a three-pillar scheme or kvadroterapiya: Amoxicillin, Tetracycline, Klabax, Sumamed, Metronidazole.
Blockers H2–histamine receptors is necessary to protect the mucosa from aggressive factors. Prescribed Omeprazole, Pirenzepine, Famotidine and others.
Treatment for superficial gastritis with high acidity involves the appointment of antacids: Almagel, Maalox, Gelusil, Gaviscon. Treat the pathology with reduced acidity in the stomach the doctor will be with the addition of these medicines: potassium orotate, potassium gluconate, Etimizol, Pepsin and other digestive enzymes. They are essential to normalize digestion and prevent stagnation of food in the stomach.
Treatment of severe pain and erosions of the gastric mucosa is enveloping drugs: Sucralfate, Metabolin, Alanton, sea buckthorn oil and others. These drugs can also speed recovery of the affected mucosa.
To treat superficial gastritis in combination with the recommended reflux drugs that prevent reflux of contents from the duodenum into the stomach: Domperidone, Metoclopramide, and antacids based on aluminium.
And related dysfunction of the pancreas requires the appointment of CREON, Pancreatin.
Treat gastritis superficial type, in remission possible methods of physiotherapeutic treatment, micro currents, balneotherapy, paraffinapplications. Useful classes of therapeutic physical culture, oxygen therapy. To prolong the period of remission recommended Spa treatment.
Diet for superficial gastritis helps to reduce inflammation and eliminate triggers that may exacerbate the disease. The exact adherence to the recommended diet for patients helps in comprehensive treatment:
- the multiplicity of the meal should be at least 5 times a day;
- food should only be warm;
- it is forbidden to eat spicy, fatty, fried foods.
It's not the whole list of banned products. Read more I will explain a doctor.
During exacerbation of the disease the patient is superficial gastritis diet assigned table by Pevsner 1A or 1B, then it is transferred to the dietary table 1.
Treatment of superficial gastritis type requires the rejection of bad habits – Smoking and alcohol abuse.