What are the digestive diseases and how they are treated
Among the pathologies of the digestive tract diseases of the stomach are prominent. In their development of great importance is a poor diet, exposure to harmful substances, as well as the activity of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Consider why there are diseases of the stomach, their most characteristic features, as well as methods of treatment and prevention.
Causes of diseases of the stomach
Among the reasons for the occurrence of any disease of the stomach in the first place are errors in nutrition. This:
- failure to follow the diet;
- the consumption of foods that difficult to digest;
- insufficient chewing of food.
Stomach hurts drinking large quantities of spices, alcohol, fatty foods. Monotonous diet also contributes to gastric diseases.
As breaks in the food increase the secretion of gastric juice, the acid begins to interact with the mucosa. So it is irritation that causes such gastric diseases as gastritis and ulcers.
Chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines is caused by drinking too cold and too hot food. It is proved that the risk of these diseases increases when a person eats meals colder and warmer 7 +70 degrees. Excessively cold foods leads to increased formation of in the stomach hydrochloric acid. At the same time, the consumption of too hot food contributes to the atrophy of the cells, because the production of hydrochloric acid is thus significantly reduced.
It should also be remembered that the systematic overflow of the stomach with food is not conducive to his normal digestion. So the best way to avoid diseases zheludka – rational and adequate nutrition.
The most typical symptoms of gastric diseases
Signs of diseases of the stomach are:
- Pain in the abdomen. It still has the name "abdominal pain". The most common cause of pain is spasm.
- Heartburn. It is the feeling of discomfort and burning along the esophagus. Often, instead of burning people describe the symptoms of heartburn as the feeling of stretching, the "lump", heat, pressure.
- Pain behind the breastbone also refers to the symptoms of gastric diseases. It should not be confused with heartburn. If you experience such symptom requires a comprehensive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal system and heart.
- Belching is hit in the mouth a small quantity of air or food. It is often accompanied by a distinctive sound.
- Dysphagia is a swallowing disorder. Signs of dysphagia are inability to swallow, pain during the act of swallowing,spasmodic movements of the larynx. Often the patient feels fear of swallowing.
- Nausea is a burdensome sensation in the stomach, chest, throat and mouth. It often may be preceded by vomiting.
- Vomiting is involuntary ejection of contents from the stomach through the esophagus, throat and mouth. It is quite a complex reflex process.
- Flatulence is the accumulation of gases in the intestines. One feels heaviness and bursting in the stomach, cramping, rumbling.
Under gastritis understand inflammatory changes of the gastric mucosa. The disease can be primary and secondary. The duration and intensity of the current doctors distinguish acute and chronic gastritis. Depending on the acid-forming ability of the stomach secrete gastritis with high, normal and low acidity.
One of the leading factors of the disease gastritis is the Helicobacter pylori bacterium. It is able to infect various areas of the stomach and cause inflammation.
Signs of chronic gastritis, regardless of acidity are:
- pain in the upper abdomen;
- frequent belching;
- bad breath;
- violation of appetite.
At low pH draw to the attention of such signs:
- bloating, feeling transfusion;
- loss of appetite;
- hardness in the stomach and a feeling of heaviness.
In the acidity of the patient concerned, except for pain and heartburn, acid regurgitation and pain on an empty stomach. Among General symptoms of disease of the stomach secrete weakness, drowsiness, fatigue, irritability and constant pain in area of heart. Often develops arrhythmia, and even high blood pressure.
Knowledge of the main symptoms of gastric ulcer – the key to timely treatment to the doctor and guarantees of cure from the disease. The most common signs of ulcers:
- Epigastric pain. They give the shoulder blade, lower back, thoracic spine. The pain may be so severe that it deprives a person of sleep.
- "Hungry" pain typical lesions pyloric (directly adjacent to the 12-duodenum).
- "Late" pains develop after a couple of hours after eating. As the release of the stomach from the food they are increasingly amplified.
- "Early" pains appear half an hour after eating and subside as you progress through it to the 12-duodenum. This characteristic symptom of ulcer of the stomach.
- Heartburn and vomiting accompany pain symptoms.
This disease is characterized by loss of tone of the stomach. It occurs in severe diseases – peritonitis, heart attack, poisoning. Causes of atony can be stress, surgery, trauma, and eating disorders, which occur as a result of the desire to lose weight. To determine the disease can only be by ultrasound.
Signs of atony of the following:
- a feeling of pressure and fullness in the stomach;
- burping large amounts of air, and sometimes the contents of the stomach;
- bad breath;
- vomiting a large amount of content.
- excessively rapid saturation.
The disease diagnosis is performed using gastrograffin, endoscopy, radiography.
This is the most severe type of ulcer. The disease develops so rapidly that a late emergency could cost a patient's life.
Signs of perforated ulcer are:
- sharp stabbing pain short-term nature;
- the increase in body temperature;
- there are signs of falling cardiac activity;
- tension of the abdomen – it becomes sensitive to any touch;
- cold sweat;
- blanching of the skin;
- thirst, dryness of the mouth.
Upon confirmation of the diagnosis shows immediate surgery.
General principles of treatment
Symptoms of diseases of the stomach require treatment according to indications. When failure of conservative treatment surgical treatment.
The main goal of treatment of gastritis, ulcers, atony is the relief of the patient, symptoms of diseases, accelerate the healing of ulcers. It is necessary to normalize the body, prevent further progression of the disease.
All patients must comply with the therapeutic regime. It consists in:
- avoidance of excessive physical and nervous stress;
- normalization of sleep;
- take all prescribed medications;
- elimination of occupational hazards, and in some cases, patients are advised to change jobs;
- the Spa treatment.
The patient should always be in a favorable psycho-emotional condition.
Recommendations for nutrition of patients
One of the conditions for a speedy recovery of patients is diet. Nutrition in disease of the stomach should reduce the load on the body, to create favorable conditions for the normalization of its functions.
Here are some of the principles of nutrition in gastric diseases:
- To include in the dieta sufficient amount of protein.
- To minimize the irritating effects on mucous membranes. All the food is desirable to grind.
- The optimum method of thermal processing of foods – for a couple.
- Necessarily excluded from the diet spices, pickles, marinades, rich broth.
- Particularly harmful any alcoholic beverages.
- The temperature of food and drinks should approximately equal the body temperature.
- Diet should be fractional. It is necessary to avoid long breaks in the meal.
- To give up Smoking.
- To ensure that the diet was varied.
Compliance with the above rules will help to establish a normal work of the stomach.